How To Get Random Coordinates In Python

• Use a newline to end a line of code. The generated random points can be copied and pasted into a spreadsheet or other application. Python Overview Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods Python File Methods Python Keywords Module Reference Random Module Requests Module Python How To Remove List Duplicates Reverse a String Python Examples Python Examples Python Exercises Python. I have noticed that when defining the same table region in tabula-py, 2 of the resulting coordinates are largely different form the camelot values (shown in the code sample below). random() randy=random. If it does, it should still follow the same instructions. pythonradex is a python re-implementation of the RADEX code [vanderTak07]. For example, random. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hinze, William J. Plotting the coordinates I get a point cloud as expected: However, depending on the mesh, there are huge irregular gaps between the points. This is more for the random matlab to python translation project. In this tutorial we're going to talk about that how to generate unique random numbers within a range in python. I am a 17-year-old computer programmer and animator who currently lives in the SF Bay Area. Now we will see how to implement K-Means Clustering using scikit-learn. Unfortunately, I'm getting an error: Traceback (most recent call last): File ", and I don't know how to determine the x-coordinate of the center from that output. I would like firstly to interpolate these data in order to get a nice colourful map of temperatures. Then, I focused on reasons behind penalizing the magnitude of coefficients should give us parsimonious models. I was thinking there would be some sort of formula to generate a coordinate if you had the screen size. Arthur tiene 4 empleos en su perfil. I want to look at a couple 100 or so random pixels from the image, try to find a common colour, then manipulate the current gtk3 theme's CSS file to change @dark_bg_color to my calculated colour, and then, somehow, reload the theme. Let's now write a few lines of Python code which will calculate the Euclidean distances between the data-points and these randomly chosen centroids. I'd like to interpolate UV coordinates at which there isn't a UV vertex in order get the corresponding world or object coordinate (it doesn't really matter which one). Then, I would like to plot this interpolated temperature layer only over the land mask (thus over the british isles and not over the sea). Specify text coordinates and coordinates of the. Multivariate Linear Regression. Next, you need to go to the coordinates of whatever point you want to be one of the corners of your area - the easiest way to get this is to have your turtle go to (x,y), where x is half of the width of your area and y is half of the height. standard_normal(shape_tuple). 4 Comments. Ten vertexes make a five-pointed star; thus, there are 20 elements in the array. In this tutorial we're going to talk about that how to generate unique random numbers within a range in python. World Coordinates. If that number is greater than 0. I need to make a python programm that compares a random sample from 1000genomes with alzheimer's snps. I'll focus on Windows, though OS X and Linux should work just as well. Position the cursor just to the right of a column header. py and then run the script:. The second line is called an import statement, and it does just what it sounds like it does. of course, the way python reads colors is. Start Using Python. And in order to do that, I needed to do a little bit of playing around to understand how decorators in python with parameters work. 😃 I need to animate a concrete frame moved by an earthquake. Click on a list name to get more information about the list, or to subscribe, unsubscribe, and change the preferences on your subscription. A Decimal instance can represent any number exactly, round up or down, and apply a limit to the number of significant digits. The coords attribute is used together with the shape attribute to specify the size, shape, and placement of an area. Now press the mouse button and drag to the right. Adding other methods to our class¶. I can get the object, but without knowing how to access it's methods, I'd have to write some sort of script to just get the object to explain/describe its interface to me. Then typing folder name to locate the folder followed by enter to open it. A change of 1 number in a coordinate equals 1 m (3. You can also use the trig functions to figure out the X and Y coordinates of the numbers. By using for loop initially range is 4. But its very simple with use of VB Script. Written in C++, poly2tri also has Python bindings and was quite easy to get up and running. We can add methods to the Point class that are sensible operations for points, but which may not be appropriate for other tuples like (25, 12) which might represent, say, a day and a month, e. It is more commonly conceptualized in one dimension ($\mathbb{Z}$), two dimensions ($\mathbb{Z}^2$) or three dimensions ($\mathbb{Z}^3$) in Cartesian space, where. Generator functions allow you to declare a function that behaves like an iterator, i. Print those instead. Then iteratively clicking right to select the image file, opening the image file by pressing enter, followed by hotkey ‘Ctrl’ + ‘r’ to rotate the image clockwise then ‘Ctrl’ + ‘s’ to save it. Hello everybody, I need to find a way to get the corners coordinates of the rectangle it's formed when selecting part of the screen. py , and we'll get to work:. Datasets format. The problem is that this last script checks if created circles are intersecting with only one circle, the reference circle. Ask Question Browse other questions tagged python random coordinates or ask your own question. It was written by John Zelle for use with the book \Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer. And this is how you can change the color of graph plot in matplotlib with Python. This is true, they are just the X and Y coordinates for a specific point on the map. Learn Data Science by completing interactive coding challenges and watching videos by expert instructors. " It cannot be read directly in this state by a GIS. The task is to create a python script that would open the default web browser to the Google map of the address given as the command line argument. If \$x + y > 1\$, use the point \$1-x, 1-y\$ instead. exe"); WebDriver drv = new ChromeDriver(); drv. MNI vs Talairach)? I am using the newest version of SPM which gives coordinates in MNI space. This method might be slow and non-standard but It is just what I would have used. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. However, in case you want to save it in a local file, one better way to accomplish is through a python module called gmplot. Matplotlib is a library for making 2D plots of arrays in Python. You will see a new panel open at the bottom of QGIS canvas. But its very simple with use of VB Script. A user recently asked if a geoprocessing tool existed to randomly disperse overlapping points inside an area or polygon. I tried to use the Point node with the Point Position, which is a vector, and get the X positon from that vector. In practice, the place you cut the loop for Python has one main constraint: The processing in Python from the end of one time through the loop to the beginning of the next loop is separated by the test of the condition in the heading. choice () function and pass it a tuple (UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT) to have Python simply randomly choose a direction value for us. If the turtle operates in cylindrical coordinates, then it has a location and a heading within its plane, and its plane may be rotated around the vertical axis. • No braces { } to mark blocks of code in Python… Use consistent indentation instead. A slightly more complicated example got me the Happy Halloween text above. Write a Python program to get a single random element from a specified string. You can also use the trig functions to figure out the X and Y coordinates of the numbers. random() randy=random. This works but it gives me random coordinates from within a square. I just need the height in pixels, so far I have used this cod. Generating a Random Placemark. EDIT: (tl;dr: I am not 100% sure how you should go about doing this with the resources AutoIt provides, but I have left some suggestions. The coords attribute is used together with the shape attribute to specify the size, shape, and placement of an area. Discover statistical hypothesis testing, resampling methods, estimation statistics and nonparametric methods in my new book , with 29 step-by-step tutorials and full source code. The original source is written in Ocaml and is not publicly available, but here is a simple example of how you can get random art going in python in 250 lines of code. Initialize t = 0. There are only 3 coordinates Thanks. 1 This title was inspired by an actual paper [3], whose one of many \contributions" to the eld is the insight that \Anton (Zeilinger) is a click in an Anton counter". Requests is a popular Python library that simplifies making HTTP requests from any python script which can be run in your computer's terminal or any embedded Linux device. Random numbers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as generating data encryption keys, simulating and modeling complex phenomena and for. I was thinking there would be some sort of formula to generate a coordinate if you had the screen size. 000 elements each. The random module provides access to functions that support many operations. The ideas behind turtle graphics can be extended to include three-dimensional space. We create a random number, n in the range 0 to 37. I am not planning to complete it, but I decided to try it just to learn classes. Here, we’ll go through the built-in methods that you can use to work with lists. The random module provides access to functions that support many operations. Storing coordinates of random coordinates in applet? Posted 29 May 2007 - 01:51 PM Hey guys, what I'm trying to do is attach ovals which appear in random locations on the screen to the end of lines(to make balloons). Install anaconda package from here, it’s a data science platform in python, it includes scientific and analytical packages, Some of these packages are NumPy, pandas, SciPy, Matplotlib, and Jupyter. When performing field calculations with a Python expression, Python math rules are in effect. Be sure to install Python 3, and not Python 2. The relation between those coordinates (vertical / horizontal) equals the tangent of the angle. Write a Python program to get a single random element from a specified string. If this is the first time you ever try to use a programming language, A Byte of Python is even. Random numbers in numpy you get broadcast behavior, not a matrix-vector product. Each cluster can be within a given set of x-y co ordinates. I have a list with addresses in the csv file. I tried to make a workaround with using default value instead of optional group, but for the following declaration an incorrect code is generated: /*[clinic input] _curses. The set of these points is called the graph of the function; it is a popular means to illustrate the function. There is no specific tool, however, with a little Python code and the use of a geometry operator, this can be accomplished very quickly. Tuple Comparison Operations ¶. 9: Step 13; Convert the mouse coordinates into grid coordinates. When the domain and the codomain are sets of real numbers, each such pair may be considered as the Cartesian coordinates of a point in the plane. The ideas behind turtle graphics can be extended to include three-dimensional space. Create and write docstring-dictionary to a Python script with the given filename. With Python using NumPy and SciPy you can read, extract information, modify, display, create and save image data. Simulating a random moving turtle. This method might be slow and non-standard but It is just what I would have used. 5) and (2, 2. (Reviewed by David Schlesinger and Steven C. Reclassify values using if-then-else logic. I want to get the (x,y) coordinates of the boundary of this TIF image - goo. create_atoms 1 box create_atoms 3 region regsphere basis 2 3 create_atoms 3 single 0 0 5 create_atoms 1 box var v set x xpos set y ypos Description This command creates atoms (or molecules) on a lattice, or a single atom (or molecule), or a random collection of atoms (or molecules), as an alternative to reading in their coordinates explicitly. There are a variety of other coordinate systems one can choose – see Basic annotation and Advanced Annotation for details. By using for loop initially range is 4. Plotting the coordinates I get a point cloud as expected: However, depending on the mesh, there are huge irregular gaps between the points. Don’t forget to get your copy of DataCamp’s NumPy cheat sheet to support you in doing this! After all this theory, it’s also time to get some more practice with the concepts and techniques that you have learned in this tutorial. MNI vs Talairach)? I am using the newest version of SPM which gives coordinates in MNI space. More examples can be found in pylab_examples example code: annotation_demo. A random network is constructed probabilistically according to some definite rules; studying such a random network usually is done by studying the entire ensemble of networks, each weighted by the probability that it was constructed. Before getting started, let us tell you that the codes used here are simply for the understanding point of view. Apply template matching using cv2. Christmas day. Issue a set of commands to display the mouse coordinates in your Microsoft Windows computer. We can use it by importing it. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Line 1: import matplotlib. 3D Starfield made using Python and Pygame. Greetings Pythoneers. The Random Number Generation tool is considerably more flexible than the function, which is the other tool that you have available within Excel to produce random numbers. Which is a PITA I'd like to avoid if I can. Familiarity with the Python language is also assumed; if this is the first time you are trying to use Python, there are many good Python tutorials on the Internet to get you started. @HenningMakholm At the moment I've got a bit of java code that generates random numbers between x and y $\endgroup$ – James111 Oct 26 '15 at 8:19. This tutorial is meant to be easily translated into languages besides English. Save plot to image file using Python Matplotlib; Plot multiple stacked bar in the same figure; Boxplot adjust bottom and left; Generate a Heatmap in Matplotlib using Pandas Data; Plot histogram basic example in Matplotlib; Turn on the axes of the pie chart in Python Matplotlib; Plotting all available markers at random coordinates in Matplotlib. However some exception treatment is needed, specially if my region is on an pole or mid-pacific zones, where a WGS-84 coordinate based matrix would change from 179. Random dot choice is a function in the random module which we've imported and it takes as an argument a sequence, a list of some sort, a container, and it picks a random element out of that. Hello, hope I can help you. While the content is more focused, this book has plenty of material to keep you busy and learning. I am trying to do some practice work on List comprehension. By default, igraph uses the random module for random number generation, but you can supply your alternative implementation here. getSelectedRows which returns an array of row indexes, and JTable. Saving in this format is a bit slower than saving in a Python pickle without compression, but the final file takes up much less space on the hard drive. import random lower = 5 upper = 10 range_width = upper - lower print random. plot([1,2,3],[4,5,1]) #Showing what we plotted. Remember that the generated numbers are actually pseudorandom numbers, or “fake” random numbers. ORG is a true random number service that generates randomness via atmospheric noise. py , and we'll get to work:. To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following Python programming topics:. It's easy, you just need to generate the vectors x and y in another way. Now, in order to feed data into our machine learning algorithm, we first need to compile an array of the features, rather than having them as x and y coordinate values. We must provide a distinct name to the class. Learn blender bpy today. random() randy=random. The precision of the argument determines the precision of the random number. The line in the code below is drawn from (0,10) to (100, 110). 5) and (2, 2. This would be pretty expensive memory-wise though. Occasionally, the need arises for a parameter to accept multiple data types, often referred to as a composite data type. If -1, uses the. Then, I would like to plot this interpolated temperature layer only over the land mask (thus over the british isles and not over the sea). choice(number_list, 2, replace=False) %timeit random_pairs_np(numbers) 10000 loops, best of 3: 26. random() if randx+randy >= 1: randx,randy=1-randx,1-randy randl,randw=randx*length,randy*width. Generally, you will see the feature list being stored in a capital X variable. Effective Python will help you harness the full power of Python to write exceptionally robust, efficient, maintainable, and well-performing code. Requests is a popular Python library that simplifies making HTTP requests from any python script which can be run in your computer's terminal or any embedded Linux device. exe"); WebDriver drv = new ChromeDriver(); drv. The mission of the Python Software Foundation is to promote, protect, and advance the Python programming language, and to support and facilitate the growth of a diverse and international community of Python programmers. Then, I focused on reasons behind penalizing the magnitude of coefficients should give us parsimonious models. Being a python developer, this post was really helpful for me to more understand python code for GPS tracker, to be frank, the code was a little bit confusing, but I am going to bookmark this for further understanding, thanks for sharing, Thanks. randint(1, 6) # returns an int between 1 to 6. The HTML canvas is a two-dimensional grid. Each point within a cluster is a random generated point. However some exception treatment is needed, specially if my region is on an pole or mid-pacific zones, where a WGS-84 coordinate based matrix would change from 179. Random Clouds with Python Turtle. If the number is in the tuple of red spaces on the roulette layout, this is printed. The numbers of the clock are arranged in a circle, so we can use math. getto the screen. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. How can this be done using Selenium? (I am using Mac OSX 10. Suppose I want to take 4 clusters of points. The following are code examples for showing how to use scipy. Before we begin programming with Processing, we must first channel our eighth grade selves, pull out a piece of graph paper, and draw a line. We’ll add items to and remove items from lists, extend lists, reverse and sort lists, and more. Another way of trying to understand recursion is to get rid of it! If we had separate functions to draw a level 3 fractal, a level 2 fractal, a level 1 fractal and a level 0 fractal, we could simplify the above code, quite mechanically, to a situation where there was no longer any recursion, like this:. The relation between those coordinates (vertical / horizontal) equals the tangent of the angle. y) and also self. Let’s dive in and see the usage of selectROI. "XML Format" The new XML format is somewhat more complex, but ultimately more flexible. We do this with our f function. Creating a script in Microsoft Windows is simple. After this generate a self function to draw a black box coordinate. 000 elements each. In Python 3, this will be the default. gl/Uai8lR I am using Python notebook in Anaconda distribution. I am making a snake game and I'm almost done but I want to make my code more organized so people can understand so how to do it. In computer graphics programming lingo, this array has a "stride" of two, that is, every two elements contain all of the information necessary to display one vertex. In these cases you need to use some simple commands in your run file of python which we present them as below:. Random Clouds with Python Turtle. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. All of the sources used in this tutorial are available to you in the Real Python. For example, random. Vectorization and parallelization in Python with NumPy and Pandas with 1,000,000 random coordinate pairs my 4-core machine took about 50% longer for calculating. Scientific Computing NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python. It was written by John Zelle for use with the book \Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer. There are numerous ways you can draw geographical coordinates on Google Maps. ) Try the code below. When the domain and the codomain are sets of real numbers, each such pair may be considered as the Cartesian coordinates of a point in the plane. Let's Program with Python: Conditionals and "if" Statements (Part 3) By Doug Farrell In part three of this four-part Python introduction you'll see how to teach your program how to make decisions with conditionals and if-statements. Before we can use pygame in a program, we need to import it; enter the statement below and press Enter: >>> import pygame Once we've imported the pygame module, we can start using the functions and classes it contains. Using python, you can write "legacy" VTK files with your own methods or use pyvtk for VTK version 2. I need to make a python programm that compares a random sample from 1000genomes with alzheimer's snps. Using code blocks. if it is in the other half, you rotate the point into your choosen half. uniform(a, b): Return a random floating point number N such that a=N=b for a=b and b=N=a for b a. The random module provides access to functions that support many operations. $\endgroup$ - Supercourgette Sep 4 '15 at 6:24. gl/Uai8lR I am using Python notebook in Anaconda distribution. I'll focus on Windows, though OS X and Linux should work just as well. coord = Coordinate(1,2) data attribute values vary between instances c1 = Coordinate(1,2) c2 = Coordinate(3,4) • c1 and c2have different data attribute values c1. I want to get the x,y position of that object. org Mailing Lists: Welcome! Below is a listing of all the public Mailman 2 mailing lists on mail. Matplotlib is a multi-platform data visualization library built on NumPy arrays and designed to work with the broader SciPy stack. Saves the graph in Python pickled format, compressed with gzip. getstr [ y: int Y-coordinate. Parameters-----size : shape tuple, optional Defines the shape of the returned array of random floats. moving_circle. If our random. fill((255,255,255)). To get the distance in miles, multiply by 3960. We first have to pick a random direction the turn to. gather operation. Practice using repeating actions, increasing a variable. 0 and Firefox version 29. Efteling hoped to get a night license for Python with some small renovations (new trains and a chain lift), but only with a change in the permit could Python remain open until 10 pm. With Python using NumPy and SciPy you can read, extract information, modify, display, create and save image data. At some point, you may need to break a large string down into smaller chunks, or strings. Become a Member Donate to the PSF. And this is how you can change the color of graph plot in matplotlib with Python. Learn blender bpy today. hello world! The first step is to confirm to yourself that you can indeed get a script to work and the easiest way to do so is to see if you can get it to talk back to you. Plan a trip to a random location. Before getting started, let us tell you that the codes used here are simply for the understanding point of view. # A side has a coordinate system. Because doing the slide animation does not actually update the board data structure, we update the board by calling makeMove() on line 307. The distance returned is relative to Earth's radius. To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following Python programming topics:. They both provide a way to generate a list of integers for you to use, however you please. When I call frame. If you like taking photos than you will probably also find yourself cropping your photos from time to time. Figure 18-4: For a 20 by 20 rectangle, having the top left corner at (400, 200) in a 400 by 400 window would place the rectangle outside of the window. One of the greatest benefits of. Adding other methods to our class¶. random() if randx+randy >= 1: randx,randy=1-randx,1-randy randl,randw=randx*length,randy*width. We first have to pick a random direction the turn to. With Python expressions and the Code Block parameter, you can: Use any Python function in the expression. How to generate random numbers and use randomness via the Python standard library. A handful of pretty random python scripts. We can use it by importing it. gmplot has a matplotlib-like. There are lots of definitions of AI. Canvas Coordinates. This means: Start at the upper-left corner (0,0) and draw a 150x75 pixels rectangle. The typewrite() call will send the text Hello world! to the window, making it look like Figure 18-3. Does anyone have an idea on how to actually avoid setting a number of cylinders to be generated, but to fill in a pre-defined area (e. If you find most programming books to be too dry, this could be an excellent book for you to get started in Python. They are extracted from open source Python projects. imshow("cropped", cropped_image) The first line returns that part of the image which starts and ends between (beginX:endX), (beginY,endY). When making your password database more secure or powering a random page feature of your website. How to modify photos to train self-driving cars Image Augmentation is a technique for taking an image and using it to generating new ones. Delete Cancel Save. A random walk can be thought of as a random process in which a tolken or a marker is randomly moved around some space, that is, a space with a metric used to compute distance. We must provide a distinct name to the class. getCenter() output to Cartesian coordinates. Please see this page to learn how to setup your environment to use VTK in Python. If you like taking photos than you will probably also find yourself cropping your photos from time to time. Let’s first see some simple Python loops in action. But I thought I’d mention a few Python-centric resources that I found useful: poly2tri: a great library for fast triangulations of polygons. OpenGL Particle System with Python. Let’s talk about using Python’s min and max functions on a list containing other lists. Entering to Python World, solved my Many Problems and Queries that i had on my mind. There is no specific tool, however, with a little Python code and the use of a geometry operator, this can be accomplished very quickly. VTK VTK is an OO-framework for visualisation, written in C++ with bindings to TCL, Python and Java. 5) and (2, 2. In this post, I would like to describe the usage of the random module in Python. If you like taking photos than you will probably also find yourself cropping your photos from time to time. 2? I have written a program that reads all the numbers in a file and then prints all of the integers into a list. The problem is that I don't have any known points on the UV texture to do the interpolation. Next, you need to go to the coordinates of whatever point you want to be one of the corners of your area - the easiest way to get this is to have your turtle go to (x,y), where x is half of the width of your area and y is half of the height. Random forests has two ways of replacing missing values. Mark Pilgrim’s Dive Into Python is one that I personally suggest. CS21: Using the Graphics Library To use the graphics library, first import it at the top of your program: from graphics import * Next create a new graphics window object, and then create gui objects to draw into this window:. Now put you uniprot IDs one by one into the downloader script and save the fasta files as you wish. Let’s Program with Python: Conditionals and “if” Statements (Part 3) By Doug Farrell In part three of this four-part Python introduction you’ll see how to teach your program how to make decisions with conditionals and if-statements. This is more for the random matlab to python translation project. A random walk can be thought of as a random process in which a tolken or a marker is randomly moved around some space, that is, a space with a metric used to compute distance. Please try the new VTKExamples website. If that number is greater than 0. Which is a PITA I'd like to avoid if I can. This function has to be called explicitly (it is not used by the turtle graphics classes). • Use a newline to end a line of code. Rect objects have a collidepoint() method that you can pass X and Y coordinates too and it will return True if the coordinates are inside (that is, collide with) the Rect object’s area. Note that although the x and y coordinates are updated with a random velocity, the z coordinate is updated with a fixed. we can use the choice() function for selecting a random password from word-list, Selecting a random item from the available data. driver","D:\\software\\chromedriver_win32\\chromedriver. random() * range_width + lower # Possible results are lower to upper, not including upper Returns a random floating-point number greater or equal to 0 and less than 1. Some coordinates include a decimal, such as 510000. pyplot as plt will import the Python Matplotlib sub-module for graph plotting pyplot. line_profiler is an excellent tool that can help you quickly profile your python code and find where the performance bottlenecks are. It returns a tuple of number of rows, columns and channels. Solving Every Sudoku Puzzle by Peter Norvig In this essay I tackle the problem of solving every Sudoku puzzle. Access properties of feature geometry. Thanks, Gopal. The one we’ll look at in this chapter allows us to create turtles and get them to draw shapes and patterns. You can set the location of your home as the starting point, generate a random point within a certain distance, Then visit the location with a GPS unit. Following is the step by step process: Creating the Address_string from command line input : Command line arguments can be read through sys module. You use that # handle again in the other subroutines to deal with the associated side. How to Create Your Own Random Number Generator in PHP Computers cannot generate random numbers. Creating a script in Microsoft Windows is simple. This can be easily achieved using nibabel package with only few lines of code. Matplotlib is an amazing visualization library in Python for 2D plots of arrays. 0 ( or above ) installed with opencv_contrib. get("http. Solving Every Sudoku Puzzle by Peter Norvig In this essay I tackle the problem of solving every Sudoku puzzle. Python has an amazing graph plotting library called matplotlib. Python class definitions require us to provide a number of things. if it is in the other half, you rotate the point into your choosen half. A change of 1 number in a coordinate equals 1 m (3. >>> Python Software Foundation. coord = Coordinate(1,2) data attribute values vary between instances c1 = Coordinate(1,2) c2 = Coordinate(3,4) • c1 and c2have different data attribute values c1. Before we begin programming with Processing, we must first channel our eighth grade selves, pull out a piece of graph paper, and draw a line. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: