Java Uri Encode

Posted 2011年04月13日 by gw8310 in java. encodeURI and encodeURIComponent In addition to escape, modern browsers support two more functions for URL-encoding: encodeURI and encodeURIComponent. For example, if a parameter value contains a space or a slash, SoapUI will automatically replace them with %20 or %2F. URL encode your data in a hassle-free way, or decode it into human-readable format. For example, the following HTML URL string is not valid and would need to be encoded:. URI, which may do the encoding you're looking for. Thanks and regards,. This is to ensure that the data remains intact without modification during transport. So I've built this informative lookup table you can use, whenever you're wondering what sort of encoding to apply to a string that is part of, or all of, a URL. Where UI was in Silverlight and JAVA was the data provider. Durch das Codieren von Teilen der URL kann man Zeichen, die sonst in URLs nicht erlaubt wären, an einen Server senden. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. BlockedNumbers; Browser; CalendarContract; CalendarContract. Here are four methods that we will discuss in this post:. Reserved characters − These are special characters such as the dollar sign, ampersand, plus, common, forward slash, colon, semi-colon, equals sign, question mark, and "at" symbol. We just simply select image from gallery, convert image to a byte array, then do a Base 64 encoding to string, store it in preferences and later decode it and set the chat background. Demonstrates how to send a JSON PUT and get the JSON response body. The purpose of the tutorial is to show you the differences between encodeURI() and encodeURIComponent() functions. openStream(), o URL. String input) Encode data for insertion inside a data value in a Visual Basic script. In URL encoding, the non-ASCII characters are replaced with a "%" followed by. The following processors support earlier versions of str:encode-uri: 4XSLT, from 4Suite. A complete encoding table is given below. The meaning of a URI containing percent-encoded octets for bytes outside of US-ASCII will change depending on the locale in which the document is viewed. String: encodeForVBScript(java. Sorry Lachlan. URL地址中中文乱码详解(javascript中encodeURI和decodeURI方法、java. The second argument defines the encoding scheme to be used. To be pedantic (and this post is full of pedantry!) I should probably call them something like ‘URI Path Segment Parameters’, but for the sake of brevity I’ll continue to say URI Parameter for the rest of this document. Thankfully this can be done with a bit of Java: java. Its first argument is the parameter to encode and second argument is the encoding scheme. 该方法的目的是对 URI 进行完整的编码,因此对以下在 URI 中具有特殊含义的 ASCII 标点符号,encodeURI() 函数是不会进行转义的:;/?:@&=+$,# 提示和注释 提示: 如果 URI 组件中含有分隔符,比如 ?. What every web developer must know about URL encoding By Stéphane Épardaud on 03 February 2009 web-applications Java. We will use toURL() & toURI() method of File class. Re: How do I stop URL forward slash from being encoded? The first part of the URL is indeed a custom property that is used in the Path: varialbe of the form builder. 09-Jul-2014 I’ve been lost in the details of URL encoding a number of times. In this page you can URL encode or decode a string and viceversa. Java provides a URLEncoder class that contains static methods to URL encode and decode a string. Null Byte Injection is an active exploitation technique used to bypass sanity checking filters in web infrastructure by adding URL-encoded null byte characters (i. Now consider below example, Now consider below example, As you can see in above example we have encoded a uri with special character by encoding it,. More specifically these functions return 1-4 character escape sequence characters use as a 'code' to represent the reserved characters. Create a XMLHTTPRequest Object that uses the POST method. Convertisseur d'URL encodées. Here are some examples of program code for encoding and decoding: Java class for encoding Unicode strings. 2 Make sure you've downloaded the Temboo Java SDK and that you've added it to your development environment as described in our Java getting started tutorial. NET or desktop development, encoding internet URLs is important as very easy to do. I was just writing some HTTP-related code using java. This allows the use of optional parameters defined by variables. The data: URI scheme allows you to build URLs that embed small data objects. Even for a single language like English no single encoding was adequate for all the letters, punctuation, and technical symbols in common use. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. The userinfo percent-encode set is used exclusively for username and passwords encoded within the URL. Java Provides a URLDecoder class containing a method named decode(). URL Encoding and Decoding Using Java If you find yourself encoding and decoding URLs often, take a look at how to do it in Java while staying on alert in case you need multiple iterations. These early character encodings were limited and could not contain enough characters to cover all the world's languages. 5, all of jQuery's Ajax methods return a superset of the XMLHTTPRequest object. cx and many more. Jumping right into it here's the source code for a complete Java class that demonstrates how to open a URL and then read from it, using the HttpURLConnection class. NET, JavaScript, and C++. For the purposes of this example we will also annotate our component with @Stateless which takes some of the configuration out of the process and gives us some nice options such as transactions and security. jsoup is a Java library for working with real-world HTML. Please do not confuse this converter with the Base64URL Encode. BufferedReader doesn't take XML encoding defined in the header, you have to specify it manually if you want to read an XML file encoded in a different character encoding. See the XSL FAQ for additional information. Encoded Result Base64 URL encoded string. Main Charset. URL decoding is converting the already percent-encoded URL to it's normal form. An encoded string is therefore longer than the original by about 1/3. To decode strings encoded with escape, use the JavaScript function unescape. Java:URLエンコード処理 ツイート HTMLでリンクを設定する時、aタグのhref属性へリンク先を設定しますが、リンク文字列中に「<」、「>」、「"」、「 (半角スペース)」などの記号が入っているとHTMLコードと区別が付かずに表示が崩れてしまいます。. The resulting. Login into WebSphere Administrative Console. Client side HTML encoding and decoding Skip intro and go straight to the HTML encoder and decoder tool! One of the things that I have found strange about Javascript is its lack of inbuilt functions to handle HTML encoding and decoding. Java URL FAQ: Using Java, how can I encode a String that I want to safely pass in a URL to a servlet or CGI program running on a web server? import java. Just to make sure I wasn't crazy, I retried the 5/22 drop and still had the same problem. If you need a more specialized way of submitting, you can use Ext. Encoding data in Base64 results in it taking up roughly 33% more space than the original data. For understanding the API for URLConnection and HttpURLConnection, please refer to this tutorial. A complete encoding table is given below. Wrapper-style indicates that each data element within the request message gets its own Java parameter, while non-wrapper style means that a single Java object containing all the data elements serves as the lone parameter to the web service method call. Basic; URL and FileName; MIME 1. i To Encode plain text paste it in the top box. The input string is thus first encoded as a sequence of UTF-8 byte. To decode a URL, people sometimes also choose java. To overcome this issue you can either set UTF-8 URI encoding on the server or if you do not have enough privileges to do that, you can adjust CKFinder to use same URI encoding as your server. However, too often I see people using the URLEncoder class for this. HTML entity encoder/decoder. I have created a tutorial for same URL Encoding and Decoding using Java Hope it helps :). Pay attention to Base64. Attendees; CalendarContract. The URL stream will be closed before this method returns. URL Encoding is the process of converting string into valid URL format. THE unique Spring Security education if you're working with Java today. URL encoded text is most commonly used in web addresses for passing URLs in querystring variables. The example below encode a URL string. The encoding of choice is UTF-8 which is able to deal with almost every known written language. String: encodeForXMLAttribute(java. It displays the list of files in a folder. We will use toURL() & toURI() method of File class. Does not encode characters that have special meaning (reserved characters) for a URI. Decode a string that has been url encoded. So I've built this informative lookup table you can use, whenever you're wondering what sort of encoding to apply to a string that is part of, or all of, a URL. In this article, you’ll learn how to Base64 encode any arbitrary text in Java using the Base64 API that was introduced in Java 8. How to URL Encode a String in Java Rajeev Singh 2 mins. I have created a tutorial for same URL Encoding and Decoding using Java Hope it helps :). 5+ simple-to-use drop-in high-performance encoder class with no dependencies and little baggage. Net page, which simply authenticates users by checking for a correct user id and password, is created to demonstrate the real concept behind disclosing “sensitive data via URL” incident. There are currently no XSLT processors that we know of that support the latest version of str:encode-uri natively. Base64 is a binary-to-text encoding scheme that represents binary data in a printable ASCII string format. (Step1) Input any UTF-8 string here. gzip An encoding format produced by the file compression program "gzip" (GNU zip) as described in RFC 1952 [25]. CalendarAlerts. The encoders and decoders for several popular image storage formats have been implemented. ResolveReference always returns a new URL instance, even if the returned URL is identical to either the base or reference. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. encoding = UTF-8 … com. In this tutorial, we are going to see the type of URL encoding type, PHP functions to encode/decode based on the standard with. Use of the encodeURI() method is a bit more specialized than escape() in that it encodes for URIs as opposed to the querystring, which is part of a URL. - In such cases, session ID is inserted as special URL parameter into each link for which encodeURL() is called:. The Advanced Form. Problem might be the file location. Type in the message you want converted and then press Encode or Decode. It will also clean up your JSON and show a data viewer to assist you while you are developing. // /** * URI Holder. Silverlight application used to call Java Servlet for data. toASCIIString(), using any of the multi-argument constructors for URI. You can vote up the examples you like and your votes will be used in our system to product more good examples. 264 Java Encoder for free. HTML entity encoder/decoder. In this article, you’ll learn how to Base64 encode any arbitrary text in Java using the Base64 API that was introduced in Java 8. This is because there is another subcategory of URIs, uniform resource names (URNs), which name resources but do not specify how to locate them. This method returns the URI provided if it is safe to use as the value of a URI-valued HTML attribute according to isSafeUri(java. encoding property, but most of the code in the core Java libraries that need to determine the default character encoding do not use this mechanism. There are currently no XSLT processors that we know of that support the latest version of str:encode-uri natively. 2 Make sure you've downloaded the Temboo Java SDK and that you've added it to your development environment as described in our Java getting started tutorial. URL; public class URIEncoder { public static String encode(String url) throws Exception { URL urlObj = new URL(url. Sets parameter of URI query overriding existing value if set. openStream(), o URL. And, the lowest bit rate rendition must be audio only with still images. Your votes will be used in our system to get more good examples. URL class is broken: its equals() method is blocking! It goes out on the network and does a reverse lookup of the hostname. URL Encoding, Percent-Encoding and Query Strings in Java. Whether working on ASP. When the user request is triggered by a get method, the form parameters and their values are appended at the end of URL after a ‘?’ sign. (The implementation does this as one step for performance. Cet article va vous détailler comment cela marche. Even though very poorly named, it does say this in the Javadocs ;) The proper class for URL encoding is the URI class. A URL String or form parameters can be encoded using the URLEncoder class – static encode (String s. URL encoding converts a string into a valid URL format that makes the transmitted data more reliable and secure. Here is a short introduction of this new API (apparently it has a little more than the regular encode/decode API). The Java 5 API on classes URI and URL do not recommend using URLEncoder for this purpose. Base64 is needed in many places other than its original use as an encoding format for transferring attachments in email. To clarify, I’m looking for a decent regular expression to validate URLs that were entered as user input with. 0) OData Version 4. Websites uses GET and POST methods to pass parameters between html pages. Sending form values json encoded to REST java webservice. xml Reference Guide for Tomcat Introduction. 4 Enter some text that you want to URL encode. URI syntax is defined by RFC 3986 (permissible content for a query string are defined in section 3. In this post I am going to discuss an old new problem of encoding file path as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) reference. , which is by the way the route I took as it offered least time investment. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. Java URL Encoding example. The term URL encoding is a bit inexact because the encoding procedure is not limited to URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), but can also be applied to any other URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers) such as URNs (Uniform Resource Names). In this page you can convert an xml to json and viceversa. Here is one sample. Internet Explorer is notoriously relaxed in its requirements for encoding spaces in URLs. For the sake of simplicity, we are going to create the XMLHTTPRequest object using the Firefox supported ' XMLHttpRequest()' function. You may already know what Base 64 is but still here is a link to Wikipedia article explaining it. For example, if a parameter value contains a space or a slash, SoapUI will automatically replace them with %20 or %2F. You can see in the given example that we have. xml file of your Java web application. Many software packages that produce XML, including XSLT processors, use UTF-8 encoding as a default. ALL, //if college object deleted then all the student objcet to be deleted/updated. The HTTP response is normally program output, not a static file. You have seen all three approaches to get XML as String and you can compare them easily. URL escape/unescape (or encode/decode) online. Using Regular Expressions in Java. // /** * URI Holder. This specifies if the encoding specified in contentType should be used for URI query parameters, instead of using the URIEncoding. Silverlight application used to call Java Servlet for data. Form methods (GET and POST) perform URL Encoding implicitly. JSP URL Encoding is used to encode the url in JSP. (c) La forma de obtener un flujo de entrada desde cualquier URL es a través de URL. Sets parameter of URI query overriding existing value if set. I never know which. However, it is good to know that URLDecoder. So, how to do a Base64. XML to JSON and JSON to XML converter online. URL-Encoding (URL-Kodierung, auch Prozentkodierung genannt) ist ein Mechanismus, der dazu dient, Informationen in einer URL unter bestimmten Gegebenheiten zu kodieren. 0 Comments Show Hide all comments. URL Encoder encodes unsafe characters so that the output can be used as a valid part of a URL. When the user request is triggered by a get method, the form parameters and their values are appended at the end of URL after a ‘?’ sign. If you want to learn more about url encoding, jump to the Url Encoding Explained section of this page. Create a XMLHTTPRequest Object that uses the POST method. Character Encoder / Decoder Tool This is an encoding / decoding tool that lets you simulate character encoding problems and errors. Silverlight application used to call Java Servlet for data. The recommended encoding scheme to use is UTF-8. com Solution. Don’t use percent-encoded octets to represent non US-ASCII characters because, in file URIs, percent-encoded octets are interpreted as a byte in the user’s current codepage. But, the functions encodeURIComponent() and decodeURIComponent() can do it. Durch das Codieren von Teilen der URL kann man Zeichen, die sonst in URLs nicht erlaubt wären, an einen Server senden. Download code samples and examples for Windows 8, Microsoft Azure, Office, SharePoint, Silverlight and other products in C#, VB. to track a referrer from an e-mail newsletter or AdWords campaign. Designed specifically for IDAutomation's barcode fonts, the encoded data may be pasted into an application with or without the font applied. GCC was originally written as the compiler for the GNU operating system. IDN Encoder converts Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) to Punycode representation which consists of ASCII characters and the prefix xn--. 9 I'm trying to encode all the URL that is requesting. latin-1), then an appropriate encoding name must be specified. I would not use URLEncoder. How to validate URL in Java. By dynamically setting the Notification URL, you can set up different listeners for different needs (such as if you are supporting different merchant sites with a single PayPal account). This class has the purpose of supportting of parsing a URI reference to extend any specific protocols, the character encoding of the protocol to be transported and the charset of the document. In this example, if the property is not primitive, it will be ignored. URLEncoder; public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity. Simple jQuery code snippet to encode/decode (convert) a href params in a url string (http address) so that they can be properly viewed on a web page. the letters č and. Relative URLs are more convenient because they are shorter and often more portable. The default encoding for binary attachments is a hex-encoding (each byte written as a 2 digit hex value). World's simplest browser-based UTF8 URL-encoder. I've written six implementations - one for each library. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. Do not try to pass "binary" data through character methods. The string strLocation stores a value that is fetched from from SRM using a function module. Finally Java 8 includes a decent API for it in the java. This is the best place to expand your knowledge and get prepared for your next interview. 1) Encoding a string to base 64. Java: How to Encode or Decode URL String Or Form Parameter Last Updated on September 2nd, 2018 by App Shah 9 comments In Java Examples , when using the GET method, parameter names and their values get submitted on the URL string after a question mark. 2 Make sure you've downloaded the Temboo Java SDK and that you've added it to your development environment as described in our Java getting started tutorial. URLEncoder; public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity. Whether working on ASP. Please help. Java 4 (JDK 1. I added some test code to Global. This class is a utility class for HTML form encoding. The input string is thus first encoded as a sequence of UTF-8 byte. Encoding. defaultCharset() will reflect changes to the file. URL-path with encoded question mark results in incorrect redirect when copied to target URL (the ?! does not get re-encoded automatically). From the humble begins as an oddly named object with few admirers,. This function encodes special characters, except: , / ? : @ & = + $ # (Use encodeURIComponent() to encode these characters). Originally conceived by Microsoft and Userland software, it has evolved through several generations; the current spec is version, SOAP 1. URIComponent is a small Java library that provides methods for encoding and decoding URI components. Java: safe character handling and URL building This post discusses HTTP URLs in Java and how to avoid data loss due to encoding/escaping issues. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. js, Smalltalk, OCaml and Delphi and other languages. Push the "Convert to Base64 Image" button on the top of the page. String sanitizeUri(java. Image Source. Here are some examples of program code for encoding and decoding: Java class for encoding Unicode strings. Originally, Unicode was designed as a pure 16-bit encoding, aimed at representing all modern scripts. Where can be used Base64 encoded image? It can be used in Data URI scheme. Use this method when you need to encode a string to be used for any resource that uses URIs and needs certain characters to remain un-encoded. 4 rely on the platform's default charset encoding. UTF-8 and Unicode. Encoded Result Base64 URL encoded string. What is SOAP? SOAP is an XML-based communication protocol and encoding format for inter-application communication. For other methods, if the name of the parameter is missing, then the parameter is ignored. They are automatically decoded on java side, but I need to encode them on ABAP side. BlockedNumbers; Browser; CalendarContract; CalendarContract. The encodeURI() function is used to encode a URI. This form will let you encode and decode Base64 encoded text. Easy Html5 Video is free for non-commercial use. I have a URL which is already encoded. Type the url pointing to the wsdl you want to parse and see the little report in human-readable format (free service). Main Charset. Oracle Technology Network is the ultimate, complete, and authoritative source of technical information and learning about Java. December 5th, 2015, The native FFmpeg AAC encoder is now stable! After seven years the native FFmpeg AAC encoder has had its experimental flag removed and declared as ready for general use. IOGroovyMethods#eachByte(java. URL Encoding replaces "non-safe" bytes in a UTF-8 string with the "percent encoding" of hex values for those bytes. Ok that makes sense. The input string is thus first encoded as a sequence of UTF-8 byte. The servlet container does not encode the binary data, it sends the raw data as it is. I have no clue on the cause yet. Each symbology type is combined into a single JAR file with the Applet, Servlet, Class Library and GIF Encoder included. i To Decode base64 to plain text, paste the base 64 code in the bottom box. Shortening Strings (URLs) using Base 62 Encoding by Matthias Kerstner · Published 28/07/2012 · Updated 19/08/2016 Today, there already exist numerous URL shortening services , such as tinyurl , bit. Encode The URL. Don't use percent-encoded octets to represent non US-ASCII characters because, in file URIs, percent-encoded octets are interpreted as a byte in the user's current codepage. In HTML, when the document encoding is a legacy encoding, code points in the URL-query string that are higher than U+007F DELETE will be converted to percent-encoded bytes using the document’s encoding. URL encoding simply refers to formatting a website address into a way that is readable by the HTTP protocols. This is the best place to expand your knowledge and get prepared for your next interview. Below I have shown how to use this method. This video is part of an online course, Web Development. InputStream, groovy. Inline images use the data URI scheme to embed images directly within web pages. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is digitally signed using JSON Web Signature (JWS). As of jQuery 1. 'UrlEncode' will encode the URL for use with HTTP, you want to encode it for use in a HTML page. * It differs from the java. Create url object; Create url with properties; Create url from file; Read url properties; Create relative url; Compare two urls; Read contents of a url; Encode url in java; Decode url in java; Get ip address; Get ip address of host; Get hostname from ip; Get system hostname; Get list of all ip. * It differs from the java. However, it is good to know that URLDecoder. I would consider this a bug in failed request tracing. 5+ simple-to-use drop-in high-performance encoder class with no dependencies and little baggage. Dealing correctly with encodings is one of the most important things in Java web applications (if not even in Java). PrintWriter: ServletResponse. the letters č and. URL encoding is used to convert non-ASCII characters into a format that can be used over the Internet because a URL is sent over the Internet by using the ASCII character-set only. This article describes common misconceptions about Uniform Resource Locator encoding, then attempts to clarify URL encoding for HTTP, before presenting frequent problems and their solutions. Convert image base64 using this tool to base64 encode images for use in html, css, javascript, etc. I am planning to do this in a filter. Java examples to escape the characters in a String using HTML entities. Tip: Use the decodeURI() function to decode an encoded URI. VH Java Media SDK 3 (Demo Viewer) Volume. 'UrlEncode' will encode the URL for use with HTTP, you want to encode it for use in a HTML page. If you are using Java, where String objects are encoding-independent (although backed by UTF-16), you won't have to worry whether your application uses ISO-8859-1 or any other encoding instead of UTF-8 for its user interface, as will not be necessary that the encoding for password digesting matches that of the user interface. URL Encoding of Special Characters Some characters are utilized by URLs for special use in defining their syntax. Archive Dev Links ©1999-2010 DeGraeve. Also, many applications need to encode binary data in a way that is convenient for inclusion in URLs, including in. URL encoding/Decoding a CString If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Ok that makes sense. Please do not confuse this converter with the Base64URL Encode. js offers simple, yet powerful ways of working with query string, has a number of URI-normalization functions and converts relative/absolute paths. I have no clue on the cause yet. How It Works. A Uniform Resource Locator takes on a certain format through which you can create connections and/or access information using various protocols. This method returns the URI provided if it is safe to use as the value of a URI-valued HTML attribute according to isSafeUri(java. Java Base64 Encode Decode examples and topics on functional interface, anonymous class, lambda for list, lambda for comparable, default methods, method reference, java date and time, java nashorn, java optional, stream, filter etc. URL Encoding, Percent-Encoding and Query Strings in Java. This class provides several methods for encoding byte data to Base64 using algorithms specified in RFC 4648 and RFC 2045. The servlet container does not encode the binary data, it sends the raw data as it is. Encoding is merely converting every character to its HTML entity name, as shown in the Java code example in Listing 1. For example, a database persistence framework for Java objects might use Base64 encoding to encode a relatively large unique id (generally 128-bit UUIDs) into a string for use as an HTTP parameter in HTTP forms or HTTP GET URLs. Handy for turning encoded JavaScript URLs from complete gibberish into readable gibberish. attached files are saved on a local folder. Convert image base64 using this tool to base64 encode images for use in html, css, javascript, etc. One of the most common encounters with URL Encoding is when dealing with. Encoded means the SOAP 1. BlockedNumbers; Browser; CalendarContract; CalendarContract. The escaping of a character is done by converting it into its UTF-8 encoding and then encoding each of the resulting bytes as a %xx hexadecimal escape sequence. Jadeite adds extra features to the API including: variable font sizes, constructions examples, placeholders for classes and methods, and auto-generated "See Also" links. 5 ways to redirect URL with Javascript January 21st, 2008 Ntt. A URL String or form parameters can be encoded using the URLEncoder class – static encode (String s. The URL-safe parameter is only applied to encode operations. This technique is called percent encoding, and in some ways it is very useful for people who make web systems, but for users it can be a real pain. URL encode space to %20, not %2b If this is your first visit, you may have to register before you can post. When these characters are not used in their special role inside a URL, they must be encoded. The PrintWriter uses the character encoding returned by getCharacterEncoding(). Content of wsdl file ===== Headers ===== null : HTTP/1. URL; public class URIEncoder { public static String encode(String url) throws Exception { URL urlObj = new URL(url. Some characters are utilized by URLs for special use in defining their syntax. Shortening Strings (URLs) using Base 62 Encoding by Matthias Kerstner · Published 28/07/2012 · Updated 19/08/2016 Today, there already exist numerous URL shortening services , such as tinyurl , bit. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: